Dufton is famed for its Pike, one of three (the others being Murton and Knock) which stand apart from the main mass of the Pennines. The geology of Dufton is exposed all around. The southern part of the landscape is dominated by St Bees Sandstone, as exposed in the old quarries in Dufton Ghyll. Dufton Pike is volcanic ash. Most of the Pennine outcrops are of limestone, though in the High Cup Valley (as also at Housesteads on Hadrian's Wall and at High Force in Teesdale) volcanic rock is exposed in the western buttresses of Whin Sill. Whin Sill is a layer of volcanic rock which was extruded under the limestone layers and which runs across England to the Farne Islands. Mining in the area was based on lead, then later on barytes. There is an interesting walk around the back of Dufton Pike described in the pdf below. Please note that the geological display mentioned at High Cup Winery no longer exists, as The Winery has now closed. Otherwise, information in the leaflet is accurate.